Race to save Chilean miners trapped underground from spiralling into depression continues

Category : Uncategorized

Thursday, September 2, 2010

It has emerged that the 33 Chilean miners trapped underground after the mine they were working in collapsed could be brought to the surface in a shorter time than was initially feared. While officials publicly announced that the men would not be brought to the surface until Christmas, sources inside technical meetings have revealed that they could in fact be on the surface by early November. The news comes as families were allowed to speak by radio-telephone to their trapped loved ones on Sunday. Over the weekend, video images filmed by the miners emerged showing the miners playing dominoes at a table and singing the Chilean national anthem. The miners also used the camera to send video messages to their families on the surface, saying that they regularly broke into tears, but were feeling better having received food and water.

The grainy nightvision images, filmed on a high definition camcorder that was sent down a small shaft to the mine, show the men in good spirits, chanting “long live Chile, and long live the miners.” They are unshaven and stripped to the waist because of the heat underground, and are seen wearing white clinical trousers that have been designed to keep them dry. Giving a guided tour of the area they are occupying, Mario Sepúlveda, one of the miners, explains they have a “little cup to brush our teeth”, and a place where they pray each day. “We have everything organized,” he tells the camera. Gesturing to the table in the center of the room, he says that “we meet here every day. We plan, we have assemblies here every day so that all the decisions we make are based on the thoughts of all 33.” Another unidentified miner asks to rescuers, “get us out of here soon, please.” A thermometer is shown in the video, reading 29.5C (85F).

As the film continues, it becomes evident that the miners have stuck a poster of a topless woman on the wall. The miners appear shy, and one man puts his hand to his face, presumably dazzled by the light mounted on the cameraman’s helmet. One miner sent a message to his family. “Be calm”, he says. “We’re going to get out of here. And we thank you from the bottom of our hearts for your efforts.” Another said that the miners are “sure that there are people here in Chile that are big people, that are powerful people, that are intelligent people, and they have the technology and they will all work together to get us out of here.” Speaking to the camera, one says: “we have had the great fortune that trapped in this mine there are good, professional people. We have electricians, we have mechanics, we have machine operators and we will let you know that while you are working to rescue us on the surface, we are down here ready to help you too.” It has been reported that Mario Gómez, 63, has become the group’s “spiritual leader”, having worked in the mines for over fifty years. He has requested that materials to build a shrine be sent down to the cavern.

Upon seeing the video in a private screening, family members, who are living in a small village of tents at the entrance to the San José copper-gold mine—which they have named Camp Hope—were elated. “He’s skinny, bearded and it was painful to see him with his head hanging down, but I am so happy to see him alive”, said Ruth Contreras, the mother of Carlos Bravo, who is trapped in the mine. The video, of which only a small portion has been released to the public, shows the miners, many of them wearing helmets, cracking jokes and thanking the rescuers for their continued efforts. The supplies are being sent to the men through a small shaft only twelve centimeters wide, and a laboratory has been set up with the purpose of designing collapsible cots and miniature sandwiches, which can be sent down such a narrow space.

CNN reported on Friday that “officials are splitting the men into two shifts so one group sleeps while the other works or has leisure time .. On average, each man has lost 22 pounds (10 kilograms) since they became trapped three weeks ago, and dehydration remains a threat. But a survey of the men indicates that at least nine miners are still too overweight to fit through the proposed rescue shaft. Initially, the miners survived by draining water from a water-cooled piece of equipment. To stay hydrated in the 90-degree mine, each miner must drink eight or nine pints of water per day.”

But while there are jubilant celebrations on the surface that the miners are alive, officials are now nervous that the miners could become depressed, trapped in a dark room the size of a small apartment. Chilean health minister Jaime Mañalich said that, on the video, he saw the telltale signs of depression. “They are more isolated, they don’t want to be on the screen, they are not eating well”, he said. “I would say depression is the correct word.” He said that doctors who had watched the video had observed the men suffering from “severe dermatological problems.” Dr. Rodrigo Figueroa, head of the trauma, stress and disaster unit at the Catholic University in Santiago, Chile, explained that “following the euphoria of being discovered, the normal psychological reaction would be for the men to collapse in a combination of fatigue and stress … People who are trained for emergencies – like these miners – tend to minimize their own needs or to ignore them. When it is time to ask for help, they don’t.” NASA has advised emergency workers that entertaining the miners would be a good idea. They are to be sent a television system complete with taped football matches. Another dilemma facing Mañalich is whether the miners should be permitted to smoke underground. While nicotine gum has been delivered to the miners, sending down cigarettes is a plan that has not been ruled out.

With the news that drilling of the main rescue tunnel was expected to begin on Monday, officials have informed the media that they hope to have the miners out of the mine by Christmas—but sources with access to technical meetings have suggested that the miners could actually be rescued by the first week of November. A news report described the rescue plan—”the main focus is a machine that bores straight down to 688m and creates a chimney-type duct that could be used to haul the miners out one by one in a rescue basket. A second drilling operation will attempt to intercept a mining tunnel at a depth of roughly 350m. The miners would then have to make their way through several miles of dark, muddy tunnels and meet the rescue drill at roughly the halfway point of their current depth of 688m.” Iván Viveros Aranas, a Chilean policeman working at Camp Hope, told reporters that Chile “has shown a unity regardless of religion or social class. You see people arriving here just to volunteer, they have no relation at all to these families.”

But over the weekend, The New York Times reported that the “miners who have astonished the world with their discipline a half-mile underground will have to aid their own escape — clearing 3,000 to 4,000 tons of rock that will fall as the rescue hole is drilled, the engineer in charge of drilling said Sunday … The work will require about a half-dozen men working in shifts 24 hours a day.” Andrés Sougarret, a senior engineer involved in operating the drill said that “the miners are going to have to take out all that material as it falls.”

The families of those trapped were allowed to speak to them by radio-telephone on Sunday—a possibility that brought reassurance both the miners and those on the surface. The Intendant of the Atacama Region, Ximena Matas, said that there had been “moments of great emotion.” She continued to say that the families “listened with great interest and they both felt and realized that the men are well. This has been a very important moment, which no doubt strengthens their [the miners’] morale.” The phone line is thought to be quite temperamental, but it is hoped that soon, those in the mine and those in Camp Hope will be able to talk every day. “To hear his voice was a balm to my heart … He is aware that the rescue is not going to happen today, that it will take some time. He asked us to stay calm as everything is going to be OK … He sounded relaxed and since it was so short I didn’t manage to ask anything. Twenty seconds was nothing”, said said Jessica Cortés, who spoke to her husband Víctor Zamora, who was not even a miner, but a vehicle mechanic. “He went in that day because a vehicle had broken down inside the mine … At first they told us he had been crushed [to death].”

Esteban Rojas sent up a letter from inside the mine, proposing to his long-time partner Jessica Yáñez, 43. While they have officially been married for 25 years, their wedding was a civil service—but Rojas has now promised to have a church ceremony which is customary in Chile. “Please keep praying that we get out of this alive. And when I do get out, we will buy a dress and get married,” the letter read. Yáñez told a newspaper that she thought he was never going to ask her. “We have talked about it before, but he never asked me … He knows that however long it takes, I’ll wait for him, because with him I’ve been through good and bad.”

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Ground broken on Northpoint development in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Category : Uncategorized

A view of the Leonard Zakim bridge from the construction site. The warehouses at right will be replaced by a five-acre park within two years. The elevated roadway in the foreground is the John F. Gilmore Bridge.

Wednesday, March 23, 2005

Cambridge, Massachusetts —Construction of two condominium buildings and a five-acre park began on March 21, in East Cambridge, Massachusetts. The buildings and park are part of the 45-acre Northpoint development, which will take 15 years and more than $2bn to complete, according to the Boston Globe. The buildings, designated as “Building S” and “Building T” by the planners of the project, Spaulding & Slye Colliers, have been designed by local architectural firm Childs Bertman Tseckares and Architects Alliance from Toronto. Buildings S and T are the first of an eventual 20 buildings planned at the site.

The development will fill what used to be a railroad yard for the Guilford Rail System, a subsidiary of Guilford Transportation Industries. According to Hoovers.com, Guilford is controlled by Timothy Mellon, heir to the Mellon banking fortune. Guilford Rail Systems has its headquarters in North Billerica and owns 1600 miles of railroad throughout New England. The tracks in the Northpoint plot have been removed, though Boston subway’s Lechmere station remains within walking distance of the site, along with parts of Boston and Cambridge. The site is bordered by Route 93 on its eastern side, Monsignor O’Brien Highway to the west, and the Gilmore Bridge to the south.

The landscape architecture of the park is provided by Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates, a landscape architecture firm on Concord Avenue in Cambridge. The firm’s principal teaches in Harvard’s Graduate School of Design. MVVA is also completing the landscape for Harvard’s Northwest Science Building.

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A Brief Guide To Enjoy A Memorable Dubai Travel}

Category : 4 Wd

A Brief Guide to Enjoy a Memorable Dubai Travel

by

Mukhtar AhmadThe land of skyscrapers- Dubai is known for the amalgamation of ultra-modern, ancient Arabian culture and cosmopolitan lifestyle. A visit to Dubai will make you witness the glittering shopping festivals, indulge in loads of adventure and enjoy culinary delights. Dubai has plenty to offer. For a large group who are on a company holiday trip, it is always wise to rely on a reputable bus hire company in UAE. This will help you enjoy a convenient and comfortable group travel experience in Dubai. Here is a brief guide that can enhance your travel experience, please have a look! 1. When to Visit Dubai: November to March: November to April is the time for Dubai winters, which makes it the best time to visit this place. During this time the weather is pleasant and allows tourists or visitors to indulge in all kinds of activities. The much loved Dubai Shopping Festival is held during the months January and February. Remember this is the peak season! Hotel rates and airfares tend to go high during this time! So, make sure to book well in advance. April to October: During the months from April to May till October, the temperatures begin to rise. The summer months in Dubai are hot and humid. If you want to avoid crowds and enjoy the less expensive hotel and airfare booking, then travel during this time will prove to be effective. 2. How to Reach Dubai?By Air- Dubai International Airport: The Dubai International Airport is the busiest and only airport in the metropolis in the UAE. By Bus- Emirates Express: The Emirates Express connects Dubai to all other emirates like Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, and others. By Road or Self Drive: Driving through Oman is the only way to enter Dubai and does not require a permit (only an exit charge is required). 3. What to See and Do in Dubai?Burj Khalifa: Burj Khalifa is a world-famous structure that stands tall at 828 meters in Downtown Dubai. It is known as the tallest man-made structure in the world. The Burj Khalifa displays an exceptional work of art, for which it has been called as the Jewel of Dubai. At the top of the building, you will get an uninterrupted view of the city’s skyline and beyond. Dubai Aquarium and Underwater Zoo: Here you will get an opportunity to explore the many species of fish like piranha, otters, Humboldt penguins, lionfish, caiman crocodiles, giant spider crabs and more. At the Aquarium store, you can shop exciting souvenirs. Desert Safari: For adventure enthusiasts, Dubai proves to be a huge playground. On a desert safari, you can hit the sands in a monstrous 4×4 SUV or indulge in sand boarding, dune bashing, camel desert safari and quad biking. 4. How to get around conveniently?There are many public transportation options in Dubai to get around the city. Considering public transportation can prove to be an inconvenient way when traveling with a large group. In this case, organizations or companies, who want to arrange a comfortable Dubai travel for a large group, can rely on reputable bus hire company in UAE. This will ensure a comfortable, safe and convenient Dubai travel experience. By booking a luxury and well-equipped bus from the bus hire company in UAE, you can arrange an exciting Dubai city tour.

This article is produced by Wadi Swat Passengers Buses Transport, a Dubai bus rental &

Bus hire company in UAE

.

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eArticlesOnline.com}


HIV-positive man receives 35 years for spitting on Dallas police officer

Category : Uncategorized

Sunday, May 18, 2008

An HIV-positive man was sentenced to 35 years in prison Wednesday, one day after being convicted of harassment of a public servant for spitting into the eye and open mouth of a Dallas, Texas police officer in May 2006. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says that no one has ever contracted HIV from saliva, and a gay-rights and AIDS advocacy group called the sentence excessive.

A Dallas County jury concluded that Willie Campbell’s act of spitting on policeman Dan Waller in 2006 constituted the use of his saliva as a deadly weapon. The incident occurred while Campbell, 42, was resisting arrest while being taken into custody for public intoxication.

“He turns and spits. He hits me in the eye and mouth. Then he told me he has AIDS. I immediately began looking for something to flush my eyes with,” said Waller to The Dallas Morning News.

Officer Waller responded after a bystander reported seeing an unconscious male lying outside a building. Dallas County prosecutors stated that Campbell attempted to fight paramedics and kicked the police officer who arrested him for public intoxication.

It’s been 25 years since the virus was identified, but there are still lots of fears.

Prosecutors said that Campbell yelled that he was innocent during the trial, and claimed a police officer was lying. Campbell’s lawyer Russell Heinrichs said that because he had a history of convictions including similarly attacking two other police officers, biting inmates, and other offenses, he was indicted under a habitual offender statute. The statute increased his minimum sentence to 25 years in prison. Because the jury ruled that Campbell’s saliva was used as a deadly weapon, he will not be eligible for parole until completing at least half his sentence.

If you look at the facts of this case, it was clear that the defendant intended to cause serious bodily injury.

The organization Lambda Legal (Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund), which advocates for individuals living with HIV, says that saliva should not be considered a deadly weapon. Bebe Anderson, the HIV projects director at Lambda Legal, spoke with The Dallas Morning News about the sentence. “It’s been 25 years since the virus was identified, but there are still lots of fears,” said Anderson.

The Dallas County prosecutor who handled the trial, Jenni Morse, said that the deadly weapon finding was justified. “No matter how minuscule, there is some risk. That means there is the possibility of causing serious bodily injury or death,” said Morse. Dallas County District Attorney Craig Watkins stated: “If you look at the facts of this case, it was clear that the defendant intended to cause serious bodily injury.”

Contact with saliva, tears, or sweat has never been shown to result in transmission of HIV.

A page at the CDC’s website, HIV and Its Transmission, states: “HIV has been found in saliva and tears in very low quantities from some AIDS patients.” The subsection “Saliva, Tears, and Sweat” concludes that: “Contact with saliva, tears, or sweat has never been shown to result in transmission of HIV.” On Friday the Dallas County Health Department released a statement explaining that HIV is most commonly spread through sexual contact, sharing needles, or transfusion from an infected blood product.

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Suspected US drone attack kills eight in Pakistan

Category : Uncategorized

Friday, November 20, 2009

Pakistani officials said that a suspected US drone attack has killed at least eight people today, including foreign militants, in the country’s northwest.

The officials said that two missiles were fired at a compound being used by suspected Taliban militants in Mir Ali village, in North Waziristan, a region on the Afghanistan-border that is said to be a militant stronghold.

At least eight people were killed in the drone attack.

“At least eight people were killed in the drone attack. A compound used by militants was targeted,” said an unnamed official to the Agence France-Presse (AFP) news agency.

Police official Mohammad Haroon said to the Reuters news agency that “it was a remote-controlled bomb. Two policemen died on the spot, while a third has succumbed to his injuries a short while ago.”

US military officials generally do not confirm attacks such as these, but its armed forces and Central Intelligence Agency employees in Afghanistan are the only forces that deploy pilotless drones in the region.

At least 65 similar drone strikes have killed about 625 people in Pakistan since August of last year, according to AFP.

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Acer Intros Aspire R7

Category : Cabling

Submitted by: John Kearney

p>The laptop industry has become very advanced. Companies have produced some of the finest laptops. This article is about yet another article introduced by Acer, one of the major competitors in the respective industry. Acer has introduced a laptop, known as the Aspire R7

Acer Aspire 5741g akku

with one of the most amazing features, an adjustable screen.

/p

p>When Acer plans a global press event, asking journalists to fly in from twelve time zones away, you know it’s going to announce more than just some back-to-school PCs. The company just announced the Aspire R7, a 15-inch laptop

Acer Aspire 6920 akku

whose display sits on a flexible “Ezel” hinge, allowing it to be pushed up and back so that it lies nearly flat — yep, just like an all-in-one desktop. Similar to the Lenovo IdeaPad Yoga line, too, you can flip the screen all the way back so that it faces away from the keyboard, a feature that seems especially well-suited for giving presentations.

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p>In terms of specs,

Acer as07a71

is being a little cagey, but we have learned the R7 has a 15.6-inch, 1080p display with a choice of Core i5 and i7 processors. Pen input is possible, too. The whole thing weighs in the neighborhood of five and a half pounds. Also confirmed: it’s up for pre-order now for $999, available exclusively at Best Buy in the US. We’re told it will ship May 17th. In the meantime, we’ve got hands-on photos below, and we’ll very shortly be adding some first impressions after the break.

p>Now users can work on their laptop and adjust the screen in accordance with their usability and convenience. The screen will be placed on the Ezel Hinge connected to the main body. This hinge will enable the screen of the laptop to become absolutely flat when pushed to its extreme. This option is especially suited to those users who have to give a lot of presentations.

p>As weird as the R7 looks, it’s in many ways just another Windows 8 slider — just bigger with a hinge design we haven’t really seen used on a notebook before. Still, the R7

as10d51

appears to present many of the same advantages and disadvantages as other sliders we’ve seen: despite being a reasonably large machine, it’s keyboard is about as cramped as what you’d find on a much smaller PC. That’s because when the display is propped up, it eats up at least half the available deck space.

p >Giving credit where it’s due, though, the backlit keys at least have a pleasantly soft finish, and feel nice to type on. But all these things are trade-offs, right? In exchange for the squat keyboard you get a display with truly adjustable screen angles — something we can’t say about other sliders we’ve tested. Also, we’ll go on record saying that this is one of the smoothest, most controlled hinges we’ve ever encountered — not just on slider convertibles, but on desktops, too. The question, we suppose is: how badly do you need a table-top

btp-aqj1

display that you’d be willing to compromise on the typing experience?

p>Acer further accentuates the slim profile on the S5 by having curved sides. This also means that full-sized ports such as USB and HDMI cannot fit–a power button (thin and difficult to press), an SD card reader and a headphone jack are the only connectors at the sides. The rest of the thicker connectors are concealed at the rear of the laptop in a hidden I/O panel that opens up when you press a button.

p>If Acer’s Aspire S5 were an episode of Friends, it’d be forever known as “The One with the Motorized Port Cover.” Unfortunately, while it was cool to have a complex, Thunderbirds-esque mechanical loading sequence on the laptop, it did make using its USB ports a bit of a chore. Furthermore, lackluster build quality, a weak battery and some serious usability flaws means that it probably can’t justify that sky-high price. That said, we figure plenty of you still went out and bought one, so tell us — did your experience meet up to our review, and what, if Acer had asked, would you change?n

About the Author: Notebook computers and digital cameras

introduced.Com

puters, digital camera batteries classes online sales.our website is

okakkus.de

.wellcom you hit it.

Source:

isnare.com

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Sony refreshes VAIO brand for business and entertainment

Category : Uncategorized

Thursday, July 31, 2008

From the middle of July, Sony Corporation refreshed their senior laptop brand VAIO from “Video Audio Integrated Operation” to “Visual Audio Intelligent Organizer”. According to Sony Taiwan Limited, this refreshment is an attempt to relocate the laptop consuming market for business and entertainment factors.

In the “VAIO Experience 2008” press conference in Europe, Sony promoted their new product series for different populations including BZ for business, FW for home entertainment, Z for ultra-slim, and SR for complex applications.

Different with past series, Sony added “Clear Bright” screening technology for high-definition display, and “full-carbon production” features. BD-burning and Intel Centrino 2 processing technologies will be featured in all the new models. For security issue, Sony also embedded fingerprint system to prevent personal data to be stolen. Continued from TZ series, innovative designs including “Green Power Button”, “Situational Switch” are also added in newly-launched series.

“Due to consuming market differences, Sony only promoted BZ series in Europe and America but not included Asia. Although the TICA Show in Taipei will be different, functionality will be the greatest issue when a consumers choose a notebook [computer] before buying.” addressed by executives from Sony Taiwan Limited, during the “VAIO Experience 2008” press conference in Taiwan.

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Pennsylvania cop on trial for allegedly murdering girlfriend’s estranged husband

Category : Uncategorized

Tuesday, March 10, 2009

The trial began today for a Pennsylvania state trooper accused of killing his girlfriend’s estranged husband.

Kevin Foley, 43, is accused of cutting the throat of John Yelenic, a dentist who was in the final stages of finalizing a divorce from his wife, Michele. According to prosecutors, Foley “loathed Dr. Yelenic” so much that he asked another fellow trooper to help him commit the alleged murder, which occurred in Yelenic’s Blairsville home.

Deputy Attorney General Anthony Krastek told an Indiana County jury that Foley also prayed Yelenic would die, and spread false rumors that Yelenic molested his adopted son.

“You will see Kevin Foley has the motive, the opportunity and the ability to commit this crime, almost to the exclusion of anybody else,” Krastek said.

Foley’s defense attorney, Jeffrey Monzo, said during opening statements that DNA evidence was not conclusive. Monzo admitted to the jury that Foley did not like Yelenic, but said that does not mean he murdered him.

“Kevin Foley is innocent,” he said.

Prosecutors said they could call as many as 70 witnesses to try and prove Foley wanted Yelenic to die. The trial, at the Indiana County Courthouse, is expected to last about three weeks.

Foley, who is on unpaid suspension from the Pennsylvania State Police, is charged with criminal homicide. The jury has the option of convicting him of first-degree murder, which could put Foley in prison for life without parole, or of a lesser degree charge, like manslaughter.

John Yelenic was found dead in his home on April 13, 2006, one day before he was planning on signing his divorce papers. Prosecutors said Foley killed Yelenic after going to the dentist’s house to confront him over the terms of the divorce. Prosecutors claim Foley slashed Yelenic several times with a knife and pushed his head through a small window, causing a further gash on his neck. Yelenic bled to death.

Foley had been living with Michele Yelenic for two years at the time of the alleged homicide. Krastek said Michele also helped perpetuate rumors that Dr. Yelenic molested their son. John and Michele Yelenic had been separated in 2002. Michele Yelenic stood to collect Dr. Yelenic’s estate and a $1 million life insurance policy, and could lose about $2,500 a month in support if the divorce was finalized, a Pennsylvania grand jury previously determined.

Michele Yelenic is expected to testify that Foley was home with her when the alleged murder occurred. Krastek told the jury DNA under Yelenic’s fingerprints will ultimately link him to the murder, as will bloody shoe prints found at the crime scene that match athletic shoes Foley is known to wear.

Monzo also said authorities have failed to investigate several other suspects, including Yelenic’s neighbor. Monzo said Yelenic was on very friendly terms with the neighbor’s wife, which could have given him a motive to commit the murder.

Prior to the trial, Foley’s defense attorneys unsuccessfully sought a change of venue because an overwhelming majority of the jury pool was familiar with the allegations. The change was denied when jurors insisted they had not formed an opinion about the charges.

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First Active offer 100% mortgages in Ireland

Category : Uncategorized

Thursday, July 14, 2005

First Active has become the first financial institution to offer 100% mortgages in the Republic of Ireland. The bank previously offered 100% financing to professionals in finance and medicine, but is now to offer this product to anyone who can afford to meet the repayments.

The development is a huge boost for first time home buyers who have been struggling to get on the Irish property market in recent years due to the rapid increase in house prices. A typical first time buyer in Dublin with 92% financing would normally have to put down a deposit of €20,000-€30,000 in cash, but now have the option to produce no deposit.

First Active has said that 100% mortgages will be available across its entire range of mortgage products.

Note however that this is not necessarily an entirely positive development.

The United States and most of Europe have experienced a housing price bubble in recent years. A bubble occurs when buyers purchase a property not because its price is appropriate for its actual value but because they expect the price to significantly rise in the short term permitting resale with a profit.

In other words, the prices people pay for properties becomes divorced from the real value of the property; the purchase is speculative and depends purely upon the expectation that people will continue to buy properties in this way (e.g. without proper consideration of their real value).

The terrible weakness in this is that when the market corrects itself and prices fall to a level where properties are being priced at their actual realistic value, anyone holding a property loses a great deal of money, since the price they paid does not reflect the actual realistic value of the property.

This kind of shock to the housing market is extremely undesirable. Significant write downs in the value of property often significantly depress the economy as a whole.

Less than 100% mortgages force buyers to invest a significant amount of money in the act of purchasing their house, which tends to discourage purely speculative purchasing, thus helping to mediate house price bubbles.

With 100% financing, anyone who can meet repayments can speculatively purchase a property. This naturally encourages pricing bubbles.

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Making Candles In Colonial Times Was Essential

By Tara Smith

Candles in Colonial America were a necessity. Obviously they didn’t have electricity and oil for lamps was costly. Candles were the light of the night. The common people made their candles out of tallow, which is animal fat and it burned rancid like the Roman candles made of the same substance. The well to do used beeswax candles; the average family couldn’t afford such extravagance.

The common colonist was out in the field quite a bit and even the women worked outside some. They made the discovery of using bayberries that they boiled to get the wax. These candles didn’t produce a lot of smoke and they smelled very good. It took so much time to make candles out of bayberry wax that it didn’t become popular. Plus, eight pounds of berries made one pound of wax. To recoup the finest form of the wax took many days. Time was of a premium; there was a lot of necessary hard work to do.

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The main candle they used for their home was a tapered candle. Repetitive dunking of the cotton strands into the wax made these candles. The wax built up around the wicks of cotton strips. When burning the wicks had to be maintained as they didn’t have braided wicks. When the 1700’s rolled around the whaling industry flourished in the colonies. This gave the colonial candle makers the choice of whale oil and they made spermaceti wax. Wax made from whale oil didn’t smell much better than that of tallow though it did hold up better in the summer’s heat.

To make candles by the colonial method get a non-waxed tapered wick and weight the end with a washer. Melt the wax in a melting pot, a tall coffee can will do. The container should be tall and narrow. A tall can allows melting less wax. When the wax is thoroughly melted shut off the heat. Place the can or pot on a surface that resists heat. Start dipping the wick into the wax. The first time hold the wick in the wax while the wax quits bubbling. The rest of the dipping needs to be just dip in and take the wick out. Hanging the wicks between dipping is a good idea if you make more than one at a time. Leave the wick out briefly between each dip.

The dipping continues until you get the diameter you want for the candle. This can be time consuming. Patience is a part of this process. You’ll hang the candles to let them harden. Clip the candles onto a coat hanger and cut the end so the bottom is flat. Once you go through this process with a few candles the big job candle making was in colonial times will be quite clear. Think of how many candles a household used in a year. Imagine reading by candlelight, sewing, cleaning a gun. Any task they did at night was by the light of a candle. What difference electricity makes.

About the Author: Tara Smith is a crafter and candle maker. The head writer and co-owner of a Scented Soy Chunk candles, company Candle Scentsations. Join her as she writes about her passion and shares ideas and tips at her website that carries Highly Scented Candles.

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